The choice of the type of energy in our home is mainly determined by the air conditioning system that we have or plan to use in it. Therefore, when deciding this system, and in order to obtain the maximum efficiency and profitability to the household energy consumption, we must pay special attention to the supplies available in the area, the meters of the house, the type of housing or block and, in the case of a new work or a reform, the type of energy rating that is intended to be achieved.
The most used types of energy are gas, electricity, and to a lesser extent, renewable energies.
Gas is today the most frequently used energy source, mainly due to the fact that the investment for its installation is relatively low. Within this type of fuel we can find two different methods of use: natural gas and liquefied gas or LPG.
Natural gas is made mostly of methane and is transported by a pipe network that links thousands of kilometers. The performance with this type of fuel is increasing significantly with the use of condensing boilers, since it does not suppose a great expense nor space in its installation and causes less CO2 emissions than other fossil fuels.
Through the condensing boilers we can obtain heating using radiators, radiant floor heating or radiant heating. It works very efficiently with water between 35 and 45 degrees and distributes heat constantly and without sudden changes.
Therefore, whenever a natural gas network is available in the area, this system is presented as one of the best alternatives for the air conditioning of the home, being able to feed it even with solar thermal panels.
In the case of single-family homes where the natural gas network does not reach, a good alternative is liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This fuel is composed of methane and propane liquefied at low pressure that reduce its volume and facilitate its transport. Therefore, its advantage is that it can be stored in special tanks for marketing and distribution.
Electricity as an energy source for the production of heating or sanitary hot water, is another good alternative in the case of small houses that do not get another type of supply such as gas, since it is clean, safe, does not generate gases directly when consuming it and normally needs little space for its installation. The drawback is that it has a more expensive consumption, so you have to study in each case its profitability compared to other fuels. In general, its use is more indicated in case of small consumption, in second homes or homes located in warmer areas.
Among the most widely used systems for the propagation of heat by electricity are electric convector heating, electric heating by accumulation, thermoelectric emitters, under floor heating, and one of the most efficient currently, such as the heat pump.
With regard to air conditioning, we must ensure that the equipment we install is the most suitable for our needs and, although initially it is a little more expensive, they are equipment with appropriate energy labels to ensure a greater efficiency possible in their consumption.
Finally, another alternative for home air conditioning comes from renewable energy.
Renewable energy can be obtained from the sun, wind, water, renewable raw materials (biomass) or earth (geothermal). We can generate electricity from any of these resources, with the main advantage that the use of these energies produces much less emissions. The drawback is that it requires technological investments that, in some cases, are not profitable.
The most commonly used systems are solar panels, which usually need some other support system, and aerothermy, which allows us to obtain energy from the air to cover the heating demand, cooling and sanitary hot water we are looking for. Both systems are clean and safe, but generally require special spaces reserved for their facilities. Of course, although at first they require a greater investment, in the long term, in case of high consumption, they can generate a great saving.
In any case, before deciding on one or the other, it is best to go to technicians or companies specializing in energy savings to study our particular case and will advise us about what is most convenient for our home.